Good reference-3D Production

  • Body mechanics are clear/ visible
  • Can be filmed from multiple angles to help
  • As little going on in the background as possible
  • Good lighting
  • Can be sourced from YouTube or other sites
  • Better reference is filmed yourself as can feel what your doing
  • Understand body language
  • Multiple angles
  • Front, side, back, how would animate it
  • Screenplay, celtx (scripts)
  • Storyboards (key poses, timing, beats)
  • Phoneme shapes (mouth shapes)


  • Should be able to look at it and get a feel for the overall animated piece
  • Beats- animate to a beat (so walk for example- 1…..2…..3…..4)
  • Rhythm of a song in a way

Staging principle

  • How you place things in a shot stage environment
  • Pose to camera
  • Never have characters next to each other (side to side)

Appeal Principle

  • Charisma
  • Anything can appeal as long as it’s interesting
  • It’s all from the pose
  • E.g. Wall E is like a soft innocent character

Exaggeration Principle

  • Level of exaggeration depends on how realistic
  • Presenting reality in a wilder or more extreme form
  • Avoid confusing the audience by keeping scene in balance

Staging, exaggeration, appeal

  • Squash and stretch
  • Weight, flexibility (sense of)
  • e.g. Bouncing ball
  • Volume doesn’t change when squashed or stretched
  • Elasticity
  • Motion paths and motion
  • Following path of action
  • Track individual parts
  • Ghost tool
  • Motion path follows object and draws lines behind it
  • To find curves/ but every natural thing as a curve
  • Always start with hips to track
  • Then hands and feet
  • Ghosting- Image lags behind
  • Follow through and overlapping action
  • Following through a motion
  • Overlapping action from hips spine like pendulum
  • Offset graph editor

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