Replication, Limitation and Visual Development

You must relate ideas to my subject yourself!

Painting-imitation- 1200-1826

  • evolved painting mass produced lots of painting
  • document/ express ideas, history that is why painted (cave men)
  • Rich/ church would have paintings in middle ages
  • created patterns instead of people
  • The renaissance- rebirth
  • Rediscovered theories ideas from greeks and romans
  • the high renaissance (14th- 16th century) is considered most important
  • Spread all over Europe
  • Michelangelo, Raphael and Leonardo de vinci most recognisable (Teenage mutant ninja turtles)
  • Funding of Artworks came from bankers and business men used
  • for worth, propaganda
  • all work with a frame, this first point to consider pose, narrative, frame, character
  • 1509 Raphael the school of Athens painting
  • picture has lots of people having people pointing to represent certain things


  • Painting as religion, Michelango the creation of Adam
  • 1508-1512 used in 2012 film
  • Painting as narrative, William Hogarth- the Rackes of Process 1732-1733
  • Painting as wealth- recording what they have, land wealth (land owned)
  • Some paintings with space are for later generation (children) to be added, onto it (symbolic)
  • Documenting same event story of family, helping to tell family story (history) symbolic
  • Roman emperors painted on to
  • morals rather than religion
  • Painting as sarcasm- Frans hals
  • Painting people as miserable drunk and stuck up
  • Painting with a lens (glass in dark room)
  • Now accurate representation using a lens
  • Animation- for lens to make reference
  • drawing supported with technology but sometimes can be distorted or disproportionate

Inaccuracy in Replication 1600’s

  • The lens
  • accuracy in replication in 1826
  • Photography
  • photography discovered simultaneously by several different people in Europe
  • Brought different experiments in science and chemistry
  • French physicist Joseph Niepce made first negative in 1816
  • later first photography (heilograph)
  • direct positive image-silver plate
  • Joseph Niepce- Window at Gras
  • 1826-1827- first photograph through reprinted
  • Joseph Niepce- still life
  • Louis Daguerre- Documentary
  • 1938- Earliest photograph, containing a people if we compare against the regatta on the grand canal 1766 by Canaletto, it brings a level of accuracy over suggestion

Portraits 1839

  • First portrait made in America
  • Unforgiving photo-portrait redirected the course of painting slowly over the next 100 years, no longer were paintings wanted
  • Most stuff was added, impressions e.g rosy cheeks, eyebrows
  • As painting became unpopular you could change idea/ craft adapt from portraits to environments
  • Paul Delanoche- french academic paper
  • “From today, painting is dead”
  • New direction for limitation- 1870


  • Impressionists concerned with realism and were also influence by photograph
  • Famous artists Monet, Degas, Renoir
  • Characterised by non-academic finish and a loose brush
  • Tried to paint fast same as photography was captured as instant image (impressionists)
  • Dabs of paint rather than strokes
  • No longer realistic

Expressionism- Reaction and Prominence 1900

  • Always reaction to something
  • German movement in reactions to academic art and impressionism
  • Found inspiration from fantasy, war, post war, politics, religion, death, dance and leisure and portraits
  • High valued self expression which sae noble and truthful

A Strands

  1. Known as the Bridge (Die brucke 1906-1913)
  2. Known as Blue rider (de bluer) e.g. The scream 1906- Edward munch
  • Painted volcano and had the red sky with horror of character (inner emotions/ psychology)
  • Secret cabinet of Dr Caligari (1920- Weine)
  • Laika not assume like Tim Burton
  • Visual style- determined by process, technique and the presence of set parameters or values with a merger artistic knowledge and previously acquired skills and current experimentation.
  • It is also reactionary

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