Media Censorship Contextual studies

Origins of censorship

  • MPPDA- Motion picture production and distributes of America
  • MPPDA into MPAA (Motion picture association of America
  • UK-BBFC established in 1913

Control in Film

  • In 1913 not classification but censorship
  • British broadcast of film and censorship
  • “moral guidance” to films 1930-1960
  • Became known as the Hays code after Will H.Hayes who developed “production code”
  • Voluntarily joined production code

The Production code

  • Based to get all states in America together
  • based on religious models
  • No picture produced that will lower the moral standards of those who see it
  • Correct standards of life subject only to the requirements of drama and entertainment shall be presented
  • law, natural or human shall not be ridiculed nor shall sympathy be created for it’s violence.
  • Make suggestions rather than tell you

Areas of focus for the Hayes code

  • No profanity such as; God, lord, jesus, christ, damn, gowd
  • No excessive or lustful kissing
  • No silhouettes of nudity
  • No ridicule of the clergy
  • No suggestion of a sexual relationship between black and white action
  • no use of liquor in American life (except when plot driven)
  • Sanctity of marriage  and home to be upheld
  • No bathrooms to be shown and bedrooms should be governed by good taste
  • The use of the flag must be carefully considered
  • Alfred Hitchcock Psycho defeats some of these rules and regulations

Hays code

  • Every film was required to submit for certificate before an exhibition
  • Examples of production code include; Outlaws, Tarzan and his mate (1934) (1943)
  • Further troubles with state censorship boards forced hughes to shelve the outlaw until the firm got a limited distribution in 1943

Social, cultural, political, context

  • Films like some like it hot and even Psycho began to challenge the hays code
  • However there is not great history of films being banned by the hays code as they did not simply challenge the rules
  • However as society, attitudes and ideologies evolved then public demand dictated what should be available and what should not
  • This can be evidenced by the revisiting of many cartoons that were deemed acceptable upon realise but were not acceptable within the changing times of the 1960s
  • Production code is replaced by a rating system, european alms could not be controlled by the code and cinemas were free to choose what they wanted to show

Censorship becomes replaced by certification

  • G for general audiences
  • M for Mature content
  • R for Restricted (under 17 not admitted without an adult)
  • X for sexually explicit content
  • Very much placed the onus upon adult content
  • M replaced by PG in 1972
  • 1984-PG-13 introduced with Gremlins
  • Today it is in America as; G,PG,PG-13, R, NC17
  • Uk is U, PG, 12, 12A, 15, 18, R18

Influence throughout media

  • This “voluntary” mode of control ha dominated American media
  • An industry regulated system to protect from federal interference. TV was under a strict code during 1950’s (FCC) Which relaxed as time progressed

Video games have regulated

  • Video game censorship
  • Ratings for publicity
  • Graphic violence/ banning of games
  • Carmeagedon banned by BBFC for running people over (1997)

Moral choice in games

  • Can’t emphasise yourself, psychology behaviour towards games
  • Pegi harsh than BBFC for rating, no consistency
  • BBFC cut out for rating (2011 but happened in 2012)
  • Censor all changes
  • More violence/ content/ gore
  • man hunt 2 banned, as kids acted and killed each other. Reminded heavily censored, bad game no one cared
  • Boards to discuss action for censorship
  • In game its lead developers but potential bias, heavily involved in industry
  • Pegi has guidance of 8 categories to measure censorship
  • Drugs, violence, online, discrimination, language, sexual content
  • Taken from opinions to measure
  • developers don’t pay two companies to rate the game
  • Pegi never banned a game

Reply to blog discussing topics in lesson

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